This study describes the methods used for obtaining HIV seroprevalence estimates in the
2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS), a population-based survey that collected
data on behavioral, social, and demographic indicators and also tested blood samples for HIV. The
HIV prevalence estimates obtained from the EDHS are evaluated for potential bias due to nonresponse
in the survey. They are also compared with the estimates of HIV prevalence obtained from
samples collected from women who visited the antenatal care (ANC) facilities selected for HIV
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